مهندسی صنایع غذایی دانشگاه تهران

مهندسی صنایع غذایی دانشگاه تهران
انجام پروژه های دانشجویی در وبلاگ مهندسی صنایع غذایی دانشگاه تهران
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v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} Rennet There are three kinds of rennets.  1) Animal rennet.  2) Vegetable rennet.  3) Microbial Rennet.   2) and 3) are OK for vegetarians.   The following web pages lists the brand of cheese that is make with one of the three kinds of rennet in USA (West, Midwest and East of USA).   Rennet (  /ˈrɛnɨt/) is a complex of enzymes produced in any mammalian stomach, and is often used in the production of cheese. Rennet contains many enzymes, including a proteolytic enzyme (protease) that coagulates the milk, causing it to separate into solids (curds) and liquid (whey). They are also very important in the stomach of young mammals as they digest their mothers' milk. The active enzyme in rennet is called chymosin or rennin (EC but there are also other important enzymes in it, e.g., pepsin and lipase. There are non-animal sources for rennet that are suitable for consumption by vegetarians. Production of natural calf rennet Natural calf rennet is extracted from the inner mucosa of the fourth stomach chamber (the abomasum) of slaughtered young, unweaned calves. These stomachs are a by-product of veal production. If rennet is extracted from older calves (grass-fed or grain-fed) the rennet contains less or no chymosin but a high level of pepsin and can only be used for special types of milk and cheeses. As each ruminant produces a special kind of rennet to digest the milk of its own species, there are milk-specific rennets available, such as kid goat rennet for goat's milk and lamb rennet for sheep's milk. Traditional method Dried and cleaned stomachs of young calves are sliced into small pieces and then put into saltwater or whey, together with some vinegar or wine to lower the pH of the solution. After some time (overnight or several days), the solution is filtered. The crude rennet that remains in the filtered solution can then be used to coagulate milk. About 1 gram of this solution can normally coagulate 2 to 4 liters of milk. This method is still used by some traditional cheese-makers, e.g. in Switzerland, Greece, France, Romania, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom and Alp-Sennereien in Austria. Modern method Deep-frozen stomachs are milled and put into an enzyme-extracting solution. The crude rennet extract is then activated by adding acid; the enzymes in the stomach are produced in an inactive form and are activated by the stomach acid. The acid is then neutralized and the rennet extract is filtered in several stages and concentrated until reaching a typical potency of about 1:15,000; meaning 1 gram of extract can coagulate 15 kg (15 litres) of milk. In 1 kg of rennet extract, there are about 0.7 grams of active enzymes – the rest is water and salt and sometimes sodium benzoate, E211, 0.5% - 1% for preservation. Typically, 1 kg of cheese contains about 0.0003 grams of rennet enzymes. Alternative sources of rennet Because of the limited availability of mammalian stomachs for rennet production, cheese makers have looked for other ways to coagulate the milk since at least Roman times. There are many sources of enzymes, ranging from plants, fungi, and microbial sources, that can substitute for animal rennet. Cheeses produced from any of these varieties of rennet are suitable for lacto-vegetarians to consume. Fermentation produced chymosin (FPC)(see below) is used more often in industrial cheesemaking in North America and Europe today because it is less expensive and of higher quality than animal rennet.[citation needed] Vegetable rennet Many plants have coagulating properties. Homer suggests in the Iliad that the Greeks used an extract of fig juice to coagulate milk.[1] Other examples include dried caper leaves[2], nettles, thistles, mallow, and Ground Ivy (Creeping Charlie). Enzymes from thistle or cynara are used in some traditional cheese production in the Mediterranean. Phytic acid, derived from unfermented soybeans, or Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) may also be used. Vegetable rennets are also suitable for vegetarians. Vegetable rennet might be used in the production of kosher and halal cheeses but nearly all kosher cheeses are produced with either microbial rennet or FPC. Worldwide, there is no industrial production for vegetable rennet. Commercial so-called vegetable rennets usually contain rennet from the mold Mucor miehei - see microbial rennet below. Microbial rennet Some molds such as Rhizomucor miehei are able to produce proteolytic enzymes. These molds are produced in a fermenter and then specially concentrated and purified to avoid contamination with unpleasant byproducts of the mold growth. At the present state of scientific research, governmental food safety organizations such as the European Food Safety Authority deny QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) status to enzymes produced especially by these molds. The flavor and taste of cheeses produced with microbial rennets tend towards some bitterness, especially after longer maturation periods.[3] These so-called "microbial rennets" are suitable for vegetarians, provided no animal-based alimentation was used during the production. Fermentation Produced Chymosin (FPC) Because of the above imperfections of microbial and animal rennets, many producers sought further replacements of rennet. With the development of genetic engineering, it became possible to insert animal genes into certain bacteria, fungi or yeasts to make them produce chymosin during fermentation. The GM-fungus is killed after fermentation and chymosin isolated from the fermentation broth, so that the Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) used by cheese producers does not contain any Genetically Modified component or ingredient. FPC contains the identical chymosin as the animal source, but produced in a more efficient way. FPC products have been on the market since 1990 and have been considered in the last 20 years the ideal milk-clotting enzyme. [4] FPC was the first artificially produced enzyme to be registered and allowed by the US Food and Drug Administration. In 1999, about 60% of US hard cheese was made with FPC [5] and it has up to 80% of the global market share for rennet.[6] By 2008, approximately 80% to 90% of commercially made cheeses in the US and Britain were made using FPC.[7] Today, the most widely used Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) is produced either by the fungus Aspergillus niger and commercialized under the trademark CHY-MAX®[8] by the Danish company Chr. Hansen, or produced by Kluyveromyces lactis and commercialized under the trademark MAXIREN®[9] by the Dutch company DSM.[citation needed] FPC contains only chymosin B, achieving a high degree of purity compared with animal rennet. FPC can deliver several benefits to the cheese producer compared with animal or microbial rennet, such as higher production yield, better curd texture and reduced bitterness.[10] Cheeses produced with (FPC) can be certified Koshen and Halal, and are suitable for vegetarians if there was no animal-based alimentation used during the chymosin production in the fermenter. Acid coagulation Milk can also be coagulated by adding an acid, such as citric acid. Cream cheese, paneer, and rubing are traditionally made this way (see Category:Acid-set cheeses for others). The acidification can also come from bacterial fermentation such as in cultured milk   INSTRUCTIONS:   Rennet is added to milk to make cheese. The rennet breaks down the protein in the milk that keeps it in liquid form and causes it to curdle. Most cheese is made from rennet harvested from the stomachs of cows. Many vegetarians prefer to use vegetable rennet in their cheese. Vegetable rennet is fairly easy to harvest from the right source. One of the more common sources of vegetable rennet, which is commonly used in Scotland, is the stinging nettle Stinging nettle has stinging hairs on the leaves and stems. Rennet, which is found in many types of cheese, is a source of enzymes that have coagulation properties. Typically, rennet is taken from the stomach of animals, such as calves and goats, and used in the production of dairy products because of the rennet's ability to help separate the solid curds from the liquid parts of the dairy. However, you also can find rennet in certain plants, such as stinging nettle, and you can make the rennet yourself for your own dairy production. Nettle Stinging nettle or common nettle, Urtica dioica, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant, native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and North America, and is the best-known member of the nettle genus Urtica. The plant has many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on its leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation when contacted by humans and other animals.[1] The plant has a long history of use as a medicine and as a food source Description Urtica dioica from Thomé, Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885. Stinging nettle is a dioecious herbaceous perennial, 1 to 2 m (3 to 7 ft) tall in the summer and dying down to the ground in winter. It has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, which are bright yellow as are the roots. The soft green leaves are 3 to 15 cm (1 to 6 in) long and are borne oppositely on an erect wiry green stem. The leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a cordate base and an acuminate tip with a terminal leaf tooth longer than adjacent laterals. It bears small greenish or brownish numerous flowers in dense axillary inflorescences. The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs and also bear many stinging hairs (trichomes), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that will inject several chemicals: acetylcholine, histamine, 5-HT (serotonin), moroidin,[2] leukotrienes,[2] and possibly formic acid.[3][4] This mixture of chemical compounds cause a painful sting or paresthesia from which the species derives its common name, as well as the colloquial names burn nettle, burn weed, burn hazel. Nettle sting avoidance Contrary to popular belief, it is possible to touch stinging nettles without being stung. As the hairs grow in one direction (upward along the stalk, or outward along the leaves), one simply needs to make sure not to grasp in a way that rubs against the direction of growth.     hand with a large sting, with visible bumps on the skin. Anti-itch drugs, usually in the form of creams containing antihistaminics or hydrocortisone[citation needed] may provide relief from the symptoms of being stung by nettles. But due to the combination of chemicals involved other remedies may be required. Calamine lotion may be helpful. Many folk remedies exist for treating the itching including Dandelion, horsetail (Equisetopsida spp.), leaf of dock (Rumex spp.), Greater Plantain, Jewelweed, (Impatiens capensis and Impatiens pallida), the underside of a fern (the spores), mud, saliva, or baking soda, oil and onions, and topical use of milk of magnesia. Lemon juice also works for treatment. Alternatively, one can simply ignore the stinging sensation and let it run its (harmless) course. Simply washing with water (immediately after stinging) also helps.   ] Distribution Stinging nettles are abundant in northern Europe and much of Asia, usually found in the countryside. It is less widespread in southern Europe and north Africa, where it is restricted by its need for moist soil. In North America it is widely distributed in Canada and the United States, where it is found in every province and state except for Hawaii and also can be found in northernmost Mexico. It grows in abundance in the Pacific Northwest, especially in places where annual rainfall is high. In North America the stinging nettle is far less common than in northern Europe. The European subspecies has been introduced into North America as well as South America. In Europe stinging nettles have a strong association with human habitation and buildings. The presence of nettles may indicate that a building has been long abandoned. Human and animal waste may be responsible for elevated levels of phosphate and nitrogen in the soil, providing an   Nettle fibres for string and rope And cloth and paper One of the main reasons for nettles being imported and grown in Britain was for producing fibres. Nettles grow easily in our damp climate and they don't need to be protected from straying livestock or people. They also don't have to be retted (left in a pond to go rotten and very smelly), unlike crops such as flax. The fibre is in the nettle skins, so can be removed by dragging the plants repeatedly over a board full of close-set spikes. When making coarser twine or rope, rather than fibre for cloth, the skins can just be peeled off by hand and immediately twisted into position. Does anything eat nettles? Yes, people do You can eat them, as greens, in soup, and in salad after soaking to remove the stinging chemical. The plants should be cropped young, when they have reached a height of six inches to a foot. Older plants rapidly become woody and have a lot of tannin in them. Mature plants develop oily seeds, these are theoretically nutritious and can be cooked like Fat Hen, Chenopodium album, but are an acquired taste to say the least. The exception to using young leaves are the mature ones used to wrap Cornish Yarg cheese to give it extra flavour. Try some if you get the chance   Nettle beer  And tea Nettles make an excellent beer and a tolerable tea. Although ladies of my acquaintance say it's the other way round. As when using them as a food, the young plants are the best for both tea and beer. They quickly become bitter as they mature. Tea requires an ounce of fresh leaf to a pint of boiling water. Leave them brewing until the water turns green and then remove the leaves. It's tends to come out rather blacker in colour than you expect but that's normal. Add sugar if you must, honey is better. For beer, you will need about two pounds of nettles to a gallon of water. Boil them up for about twenty minutes, then strain them off and add half a pound of sugar. When it cools to room temperature, add some yeast. You can put in other flavourings such as ginger or cloves if you like them. Leave it covered in a warm place for about three days and you should have a drinkable brew. Make sure you use strong bottles if you intend to bottle it and let it mature, it has a tendency to make them explode. The beer is quite pale in colour but you can get a darker brew by using brown sugar or even molasses There are also many recipes for alcoholic nettle beer, which is a countryside favourite in the British Isles     Nettles as medicine The Romans claimed that they relieved the pain of arthritis and a study at the University of Plymouth appears to confirm this have a look at this BBC report. The juice has antiseptic properties and with a little honey makes a good treatment for a sore throat. Used as a wound herb, the juice is astringent and will help stop bleeding. To extract juice for the above, use a handful of mature, dark green leaves, but not ones that have been attacked by insects. Wash them and chop then up. Nettle leaf is a herb that has a long tradition of use as an adjuvant remedy in the treatment of arthritis in Germany. Nettle leaf extract contains active compounds that reduce TNF-α and other inflammatory cytokines.[6][7] It has been demonstrated that nettle leaf lowers TNF-α levels by potently inhibiting the genetic transcription factor that activates TNF-α and IL-1B in the synovial tissue that lines the joint.[8] Nettle is used in shampoo to control dandruff and is said to make hair more glossy, which is why some farmers include a handful of nettles with cattle feed.[9] Nettle root extracts have been extensively studied in human clinical trials as a treatment for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). These extracts have been shown to help relieve symptoms compared to placebo both by themselves [10] and when combined with other herbal medicines.[11] Because it contains 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran, certain extracts of the nettle are used by bodybuilders in an effort to increase free testosterone by occupying sex-hormone binding globulin[12]     Nicholas Culpepper 1653 The roots or leaves boiled, or the juice of either of them, or both made into an electuary with honey and sugar, is a safe and sure medicine to open the pipes and passages of the lungs, which is the cause of wheezing and shortness of breath, and helps to expectorate tough phlegm, as also to raise the imposthumed pleurisy; and spend it by spitting; the same helps the swelling of the almonds of the throat, the mouth and throat being gargled therewith. The juice is also effectual to settle the palate of the mouth in its place, and to heal and temper the inflammations and soreness of the mouth and throat. Food   The nettle can be used as a foodstuff, as the purée shown in the above image. Stinging nettle has a flavour similar to spinach and cucumber when cooked and is rich in vitamins A, C, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium. Young plants were harvested by Native Americans and used as a cooked plant in spring when other food plants were scarce.[14] Soaking nettles in water or cooking will remove the stinging chemicals from the plant, which allows them to be handled and eaten without incidence of stinging. After stinging nettle enters its flowering and seed setting stages the leaves develop gritty particles called "cystoliths", which can irritate the urinary tract.[14] In its peak season, stinging nettle contains up to 25% protein, dry weight, which is high for a leafy green vegetable.[15] The young leaves are edible and make a very good pot-herb. The leaves are also dried and may then be used to make a tisane, as can also be done with the nettle's flowers. Nettles can be used in a variety of recipes, such as polenta, pesto and purée.[16] Nettle soup is a common use of the plant, particularly in Northern and Eastern Europe. In Nepal and the Kumaon & Garhwal region of Northern India, stinging nettle is known as Shishnu and Kandeli respectively. It is a very popular vegetable and cooked with Indian spices. Nettles are sometimes used in cheese making, for example in the production of Yarg[17] and as a flavouring in varieties of Gouda       Made Vegetable Rennet   By Jeffrey Brian Airman, eHow Contributor Stinging nettles are substituted for spinach in many recipes. Vegetable rennet is a natural enzyme that coagulates milk and separates the curds and whey when you are making cheese. Commercial vegetable rennet is often extracted from a mold called mucor miehei. Vegetable rennet is used by vegetarian cheese makers to avoid adding rennet made from animal parts. The main ingredient for homemade vegetable rennet may be growing in your backyard or a forest nearby. You can make a variety of fresh and aged cheeses using homemade vegetable rennet. Does this Spark an idea?       Instructions o    1 Put on rubber gloves before loading the stinging nettles into the colander. Rinse the nettles in cold water. Break off and discard any roots that are still attached. Load the stinging nettles into a food processor and pulse the machine until they have been reduced to a green paste. You may need to load a few handfuls of the nettles at a time depending on the size of the food processor you are using. Scoop all the vegetable matter out of the food processor into the stockpot with a spatula. Add just enough cold water to the stockpot to cover the chopped nettles. Place it on the stove over medium-high heat. o     2 Set a timer for 30 minutes. Turn down the temperature of the stove when the water begins to boil and cover the saucepan with the lid. Allow the water to bubble and simmer until the timer goes off. o    3 Stir the stinging nettles with a spatula occasionally as the water boils and bubbles. As the nettles cook, the sharp hairs soften, making them safe for consumption. The water takes on a greenish tint and may appear foggy, which is only the excretion of the natural enzymes produced from boiling the nettles. o    4 Place a bowl in the sink and the colander on top of the bowl. When the timer goes off, take the saucepan off the stove and pour the contents into the colander. The liquid will go straight through to the bowl, while the stinging nettle stays trapped in the colander. Remove the colander to expose the bowl and liquid. o    5 Add 1 tablespoon of salt to the liquid in the bowl. If you notice that the salt is being absorbed immediately, add another tablespoon. Allow the mixture to cool. Stir in salt until no more will dissolve in the mixture. Stop when you begin to see salt collect at the bottom of the bowl.   o    6 Reserve the cooled liquid in a container and store in the refrigerator. If you are going to use the stinging nettle rennet with milk, Windward recommends using 1/2 cup of the rennet for every 1 gallon of milk. o    4 Cover the stockpot and reduce the heat to the medium-low setting once the water reaches a full boil. Slowly stir in Kosher salt with a wooden spoon until you are unable to get any salt to dissolve. Boil the nettle mash in the covered stockpot for 20 minutes. o    5 Line the colander with a doubled-over piece of cheesecloth and lower it into a large bowl. Pour the contents of the stockpot into the colander and allow it to drain and cool for five minutes. Fold the sides of the cheesecloth over the pile of cooled nettles and press out all the remaining liquid. o    6 Lift up the colander and discard the fully pressed stinging nettles. Use approximately half a cup of the homemade vegetable rennet for every gallon of milk you want to coagulate. Store leftover rennet in an air-tight glass or plastic container in the refrigerator for up to a week.   Tips & Warnings ·         Stinging nettle rennet is unsuitable for cheese that must ripen and age for an extended period of time as the salt inhibits the ripening of the curd. ·         Vegetable rennet in general is not recommended for long-ripening cheeses because it causes them to develop a bitter taste after roughly six months of aging. ·         Keep unused vegetable rennet in the refrigerator in a dark glass, sealable container. ·         Make a vegetable rennet with a lower salt content from the cardus species of sunflower. Dry the flowers, then grind them into a powder. Dissolve 2 tsp. of the powder in 1/2 cup water, then add to 1 gallon of milk.         ·         Stinging Nettles as a Natural Rennet for Cheese Making ·         Another little trick is to use stinging nettles to set your cheese. Take a gallon of any kind of milk. Then take some herbs you like, and set them in some hot water, like you were making tea from them. Set that aside. Only use enough water to cover plus a tad bit more. Now heat your milk to about 160°F and hold. Add the herbs and maintain the temp of 160°F. Let cool to 80°F add 1 cup cultured butter milk stir and wait a moment, then add a hand full or about 1/2 cup of stinging nettle. Your cheese will set. Now just cut the curds (use only stainless steel when working with cheese aluminum will kill you) After your curds are cut, keep on the heat at 100°F  a bit more for just a few minutes. Then hang over night in cheese cloth and enjoy. This also can be made with any kind of milk. This cheese can also be pressed to make a hard cheese. It is a very versatile base that has limitless possibilities. It is soft or hard, spiced or not, it is what ever you want it to be.     Another source of vegetable rennet Thistle contains an enzyme that causes milk to curdle. Rennet is used to coagulate milk to form curds that can be made into cheese. The heads of the thistle plant contain a naturally occurring enzyme similar to the chymosin found in animal rennet. Cheeses made from thistle rennet tend to be softer than cheeses made from animal rennet. You can make yogurt from thistle rennet, which can then be made into cream cheese and soft cheese. When making cheeses from thistle rennet, use goat or sheep milk for the best results. INSTRUCTIONS: Things You'll Need: " Dry thistle heads Plastic or glass container Food processer Measuring cup Distilled water Cheesecloth Covered bowl or jar 1 qt. goat or sheep milk Saucepan Thermometer Tablespoon Unflavored live cultures yogurt Yogurt flavoring Glass jars String Plastic, air-tight containers 1. Harvest the drying thistle heads before they produce white fluff. Do not use heads with fluff, they will not make rennet. Store the heads in a dry place in a plastic or glass container with a lid until needed. 2. Place three, dried thistle heads in a food processer and pulverize the heads until they turn into a powder. Add ¾ cup of distilled water over the powder in the food processer and mix for a few seconds. Add ¾ cup more distilled water to the mixture. Let the mixture set for an hour for it to become rennet. 3. Reprocess the rennet again until well-blended. Strain the rennet through the cheesecloth. Store rennet for up to a week in a covered bowl or jar in the refrigerator. 4. Pour 1 qt. of goat or sheep milk into a saucepan. Heat the milk to 165° F. Turn the heat down and allow the milk to cool to 100°. 5. Stir in 1 tbsp. of unflavored live cultures yogurt into the milk. Stir 1 tbsp. of the thistle rennet into the milk. Set the milk mixture in a warm place for eight hours to allow the curds to separate from the whey. 6. Set the milk mixture in the refrigerator overnight. Your milk mixture will turn into yogurt by morning. Add flavor to the yogurt, if desired. Store yogurt in glass jars in the refrigerator. Continue to Steps 7 and 8 to make cream cheese and soft cheese. 7. Make cream cheese by straining the milk through the cheesecloth. Tie a string around the cheesecloth so it holds the yogurt in a bundle. Hang the bundle in an area where it can drain. Set a bowl under the bundle to catch drips. Allow the cheese to hang until it has a cream cheese texture. Unwrap and store the cream cheese in a plastic, air-tight container in the refrigerator. Continue to the next step to make soft cheese. 8. Let the cream cheese hang for a few days to harden into soft cheese. The cheese will have a hard exterior but a soft interior that is great for dipping crusty breads. Store the soft cheese in a plastic, air-tight container in the refrigerator. By Rachelle Proulx, eHow Contributor     Two example of vegetarian cheese   1-how to make your own vegetarian cheddar cheese Once you start making your own cheese you won’t want to stop. The big cost is the milk, so see if you can source a cheap option from a local farmer or buy in bulk when the milk is at the end of its sell-by date. You can use this blueprint recipe to make a mild, soft cheese or a harder, more crumbly cheese. It all depends on how much time you give the cheese to set. The initial process takes about 4 hours.   Homemade vegetarian cheese Equipment Before you start you will need the right equipment. A thermometer and a cheesecloth – if this is your first time and you have no cheesecloth to hand then clean nylon, a tea towel or table cloth might work. As with the knives, mixing bowls and the pan that you use they should all be sterilised shortly before you being making the cheese. You can do this by cleaning them in boiling water and drying, where necessary, in a hot oven. * Sterilised cheesecloth or muslin * Sterilised mixing bowl * Sterilised palette knife * 2 large sterilised pans * Sterilised colander * Cheese press (to make your own, use a large empty baked bean can with both ends removed, place on top off a chopping board and, once the cheese has been put inside, place 30lb of weights on top) Ingredients * 5 litres (1 gallon) full cream milk * 1 litre (1.7 pints) additional cream (optional) * 120ml (4oz) crème fraiche or plain yoghurt or buttermilk * 3ml (half teaspoon) Vegeren (vegetarian rennet) * 10-20g salt, preferably coarse * pepper, sugar, margarine or other flavourings are optional 1. Place the milk and cream, and the yoghurt, buttermilk or crème fraiche into the large pan and leave for half an hour. This gives the milk a richer flavour and helps it to acidify. 2. Gently heat the milk up to 28C and maintain this temperature for 45 minutes.   Cheese Curds by Jesse Dill 3. Add the rennet by dissolving it in a small cup of pre-boiled water. Then mix it in with the milk. Once thoroughly mixed, remove the milk from the heat and leave to cool for 30-45 minutes. The top of the milk will start to congeal and set and the curds will separate. 4. When the curds have set, cut them into small, roughly centimetre size cubes. 5. Over 40 minutes, slowly bring the temperature up to 39C and continue to gently stir. Keep the curds at this temperature for 30 more minutes. Stir every few minutes to keep the curds from congealing. 6. During this time line the colander with the cheesecloth or muslin. 7. Stop stirring for the last 5 minutes so the curds can settle and you can drain the whey off. Draining the whey by Lorelei 8. Put the curds into the colander and drain into the second pot. You should collect enough whey to fill the pot 1/3 full. 9. Place the new pot on top of the heat to keep at 39C for 1 hour. For a moister cheese, reduce the time to 45 minutes or even 30 minutes. 10. Remove the congealed curds and cut into long pencil sized strips. Stir in the salt and other flavourings to taste. Maturing the cheese Many people like to eat these cheese now. But to make a wheel of cheese, leave the curd in the cheesecloth and put it into the cheese press and leave for overnight. Add a light weight for the first hour and then the full 30lbs after that. In the morning turn the cheese upside down and press for another 24 hours. The next morning, remove the cheese from the press and allow to dry for a day or two. Rub the surface with salt if you want to encourage a rind to develop. You can take this a step further by waxing or bandaging the cheese and leaving it to ripen. Leaving the cheese in a cool, dry place at 8–11C for up to 4 weeks will give it a mild cheddar flavour. Three months will give it a medium flavour, and you can also leave the cheese for longer for a more  mature taste. Turn the cheese daily for the first three weeks, then on alternate days after that. Smaller cheeses will ripen faster.   Gouda Cheese   Made from cow's milk, this variety of Gouda Cheese is blended with bits of Stinging Nettles to enhance the flavor of the cheese paste. The Stinging Nettle is a common herb that is often prepared for use in salads or as a side dish of greens. By cooking the Nettles, the sting of this herb is eliminated as it is when prepared for use in cheese. Mildy sharp in flavor, Gouda Cheese with Stinging Nettles is a soft-textured cheese formed into wheel shapes that range in weight from 10 to 20 pounds. When paired with wine, this cheese goes well with medium-bodied red wine or dark beer. Traditional Gouda that is to be aged is covered in a yellow wax coating. As it ages the texture hardens and becomes dark ivory or caramel colored, at which point the flavor intensifies, tasting much like cheddar. In addition to being flavored with herbs, Gouda is also available as a cheese flavored with spices such as cumin.     Yarg is a semi-hard cow's milk cheese made in Cornwall, United Kingdom from the milk of Friesian cows. Before being left to mature, this cheese is carefully wrapped in nettle leaves to form an edible, though mouldy, rind. The texture varies from creamy and soft immediately under the nettle coating to a Caerphilly cheese-like crumbly texture in the middle.[1] Modern production is at Pengreep farm near Truro, by Lynher Dairies from an old recipe. "Yarg" is simply "Gray" spelled backwards, after Allan and Jenny Gray, the couple who gave the recipe to Pengreep Farm in the 1970s.[2] Yarg is sold throughout the world, but is produced solely in Cornwall by Lynher Dairies. Although the cheese has never been manufactured on a mass scale, it has fans all over the world. It was first made by the Grays at Withiel and from 1984 to 2006 at Netherton Farm near Upton Cross, Cornwall, by Lynher Dairies. From 2001 to 2006 it was also made at Pengreep.[3][4] As well as the unusual name, the cheese is instantly familiar from its unique coating. The nettles, though being the ingredient which gives Yarg its unique flavour, were originally used as a preservative. However, this ingredient is what now delights many, described as having "a delicate, almost mushroom flavour." As well as the taste of the nettles, an interesting flavour is added by the mould allowed to grow on the cheese, which is not harmful. Yarg has been honored as the selection for FIRST Team 1086: Blue Cheese's robot name in the 2012 season. This is a dedication to the team's old name "Pirates of the Black Pearl" since it is the team's 10th year. Another version of the cheese is Cornish Wild Garlic Yarg which is covered with wild garlic leaves.[5]
برچسب‌ها: Vegetable rennet, مایه پنیر گیاهی, تولید مایه پنیر از گزنه
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